Photograph of a grasshopper.

Link to Home.
Link to ID Tools.
Link to Outbreak Information.
Link to Management.
Link to IPM Handbook.
Link to Support Software.
Link to NPARL Research.
Link to Mormon Cricket.
Link to What's New.
Link to Links Page.
Link to Order CD.
Link to Site Map.
Link to Search/Index.
Contact Us -- webmaster[at]sidney.ars.usda.gov

Grasshoppers: Their Biology Identification and Management.
ID Tools.


Field Guide to Common Western Grasshoppers
by Robert E. Pfadt
 

Introduction
External Anatomy
Names and Species
Grasshopper Populations
Life Cycles
Seasonal Occurrence and Behavior
Collections and Survey
Grasslands of North America
Food Plants
Glossary
Selected References
List of Species Fact Sheets (60 Species)











Download the PDF Version of this Field Guide.

Selected References

Alexander, G. 1941. Keys for the identification of Colorado Orthoptera. Univ. Colorado Studies, Series D 1(3): 129-164.

Alexander, G. and J. R. Hilliard, Jr. 1969. Altitudinal and seasonal distribution of Orthoptera in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado. Ecol. Monogr. 30: 385-431.

Anderson, N. L. 1973. The vegetation of rangeland sites associated with some grasshopper studies in Montana. Montana Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 668.

Bailey, W. J., M. D. Greenfield, and T. E. Shelly. 1993. Transmission and perception of acoustic signals in the desert clicker, Ligurotettix coquilletti (Orthoptera: Acrididae). J. Insect Behavior 6: 141-154.

Ball, E. D., E. R. Tinkham, R. Flock and C. T. Vorhies. 1942. The grasshoppers and other Orthoptera of Arizona. Arizona Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 93: 255-373.

Barnum, A. H. 1964. Orthoptera of the Nevada test site. Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull. Biol. Series H (3): 1-134.

Bird, R. D., W. Allen, and D. S. Smith. 1966. The responses of grasshoppers to ecological changes produced by agricultural development in southwestern Manitoba. Can. Entomol. 98: 1191-11205.

Bird, R. D. and W. Romanow. 1966. The effect of agricultural development on the grasshopper populations of the Red River Valley of Manitoba, Canada. Can. Entomol. 98: 487-507.

Brooks, A. R. 1958. Acridoidea of southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (Orthoptera). Supl. 9. Can. Entomol. 90.

Brusven, M. A. 1967. Differentiation, ecology and distribution of immature slant-faced grasshoppers (Acridinae) in Kansas. Kansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 149.

Brusven, M. A. 1972. Differentiation of common Catantopinae and Cyrtacanthacridinae nymphs (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of Idaho and adjacent areas. Melanderia 9: 1-31.

Buckell, E. R. 1945. The grasshopper outbreak of 1944 in British Columbia. Can. Entomol. 77: 115-116.

Campbell, J. B., W. H. Arnett, J. D. Lambley, O. K. Jantz and H. Knutson. 1974. Grasshoppers (Acrididae) of the Flint Hills native tallgrass prairie in Kansas. Kansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Manhattan, Res. Paper 19.

Cantrall, I. J. 1943. The ecology of the Orthoptera and Dermaptera of the George Reserve, Michigan. Univ. Michigan Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. No. 54.

Capinera, J. L., ed. 1987. Integrated pest management on rangeland, A shortgrass prairie perspective. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Capinera, J. L. and D. C. Thompson. 1987. Dynamics and structure of grasshopper assemblages in shortgrass prairie. Can. Entomol. 119: 567-575.

Capinera, J. L. and T. S. Sechrist. 1981. Grasshoppers (Acrididae) of Colorado, identification, biology and management. Colorado State Univ. Exp. Sta. Bull. 584S.

Chapman, R. F. and A. Joern, ed. 1990. Biology of Grasshoppers. Wiley, New York.

Chapman, R. F. and G. Sword. 1993. The importance of palpation in food selection by a polyphagous grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae). J. Insect Behav. 6: 79-91.

Coppock, S., Jr. 1962. The grasshoppers of Oklahoma (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Oklahoma Agr. Exp. Sta. Processed Series P-399.

Cowan, F. T. 1929. Life history, habits, and control of the Mormon cricket. USDA Tech. Bull. 161.

Cowan, F. T. 1971. Field biology of the migratory phase of Melanoplus rugglesi (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 64: 574-580.

Daniels, N. E. and L. D. Chedester. 1973. Grasshopper collections on three land types. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. MP-1100.

Dingle, H. and T.A. Mousseau. 1994. Geographic variation in embryonic development time and stage of diapause in a grasshopper. Oecologia 97: 179-185.

Dingle, H., T. A. Mousseau, and S. M. Scott. 1990. Altitudinal variation in life cycle syndromes of California populations of the grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.). Oecologia 84: 199-206.

Dirsh, V. M. 1974. Genus Schistocerca (Acridomorpha, Insecta). Dr. W. Junk B. V., Pub., The Hague.

Fielding, D. J. and M. A. Brusven. 1992. Food and habitat preferences of Melanoplus sanguinipes and Aulocara elliotti (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on disturbed rangeland in southern Idaho. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 783-788.

Fielding, D. J. and M. A. Brusven. 1993. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) community composition and ecological disturbance on southern Idaho rangeland. Environ. Entomol. 22: 71-81.

Fulton, B. B. 1930. Notes on Oregon Orthoptera with descriptions of new species and races. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 23: 611-641.

Gangwere, S. K. 1961. A monograph on food selection in Orthoptera. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 87: 67-230.

Gurney, A. B. 1949. Melanoplus rugglesi, a migratory grasshopper from the Great Basin in North America. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 51: 267-272.

Gurney, A. B. and A. R. Brooks. 1959. Grasshoppers of the mexicanus group, genus Melanoplus (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Proc. US National Mus. 110: 1-93.

Hagen, A. F. 1970. An annotated list of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) from the eleven panhandle counties of Nebraska. Nebraska Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 238.

Handford, R. H. 1946. The identification of nymphs of the genus Melanoplus of Manitoba and adjacent areas. Sci. Agr. 26: 147-180 and 12 plates.

Hauke, H. A. 1953. An annotated list of the Orthoptera of Nebraska, Part II. The Tettigidae and Acrididae. Bull. Univ. Nebraska State Mus. 3(9): 1-79.

Hebard, M. 1925. The Orthoptera of South Dakota. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 77: 33-155.

Hebard, M. 1928. The Orthoptera of Montana. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 80: 211-306.

Hebard, M. 1929. The Orthoptera of Colorado. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 81: 303-425.

Hebard, M. 1931. The Orthoptera of Kansas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 83: 119-227.

Hebard, M. 1936. Orthoptera of North Dakota. North Dakota Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 284.

Helfer, J. R. 1987. How to know the grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches and their allies. Dover, New York.

Hewitt, G. B. 1977. Review of forage losses caused by rangeland grasshoppers. USDA Misc. Pub. 1348.

Hewitt, G. B. 1985. Review of factors affecting fecundity, oviposition, and egg survival of grasshoppers in North America. USDA ARS-36.

Hewitt, G. B. and W. F. Barr. 1967. The banded-wing grasshoppers of Idaho (Orthoptera: Oedipodinae). Idaho. Agr. Exp. Res. Sta. Bull. 72.

Hinks, C. F., O. Olfert, N. D. Westcott, E. M. Coxworth, and W. Craig. 1990. Preference and performance in grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae), feeding on kochia, oats, and wheat: Implications for population dynamics. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 1338-1343.

Howard, J. J. 1993. Temporal pattern of resource use and variation in diets of individual grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). J. Insect Behavior 6: 441-453.

Hubbell, T. H. 1922. Notes on the Orthoptera of North Dakota. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan 113: 1-56.

Hubbell, T. H. 1960. The sibling species of the alutacea group of the bird-locust genus Schistocerca (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Cyrtacanthacridinae). Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ. 116.

Isely, F. B. 1937. Seasonal succession, soil relations, numbers, and regional distribution of northeastern Texas acridians. Ecol. Monogr. 7: 318-344.

Joern, A. 1982. Distributions, densities, and relative abundances of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in a Nebraska sandhills prairie. Prairie Nat. 14: 37-45.

Knutson, H., S. G. F. Smith, and M. H. Blust. 1983. Grasshoppers, identifying species of economic importance. Kansas State Univ. Coop. Ext. Ser. S-21.

Kumar, R., R. J. Lavigne, J. E. Lloyd and R. E. Pfadt. 1976. Insects of the Central Plains Experiment Range, Pawnee National Grassland. Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta. Sci. Monogr. 32.

La Rivers, I. 1948. A synopsis of Nevada Orthoptera. Am. Midl. Nat. 39: 652-720.

Lockwood, J. A., T. J. McNary, J. C. Larsen and J. Cole. 1993. Distribution atlas for grasshoppers and the Mormon cricket in Wyoming 1988-92. Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 976.

MacCarthy, H. R. 1956. A ten-year study of the climatology of Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus (Sauss.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Saskatchewan. Can. J. Agr. Sci. 36: 445-462.

McDaniel, B. 1987. Grasshoppers of South Dakota. South Dakota State Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. TB 89.

Mills, H. B. and J. H. Pepper. 1938. Key to the grasshoppers of Montana. Montana Agr. Exp. Sta. Mimeo Cir. 9. Revised 1949.

Moore, H. W. 1948. Variations in fall embryological development in three grasshopper species. Can. Entomol. 80: 83-88.

Mulkern, G. B. 1980. Population fluctuations and competitive relationships of grasshopper species (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106: 1-41.

Mulkern, G. B., K. P. Pruess, H. Knutson, A. F. Hagen, J. B. Campbell and J. D. Lambley. 1969. Food habits and preferences of grassland grasshoppers of the north central Great Plains. North Dakota Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 481.

Nerney, N. J. 1961. Effects of seasonal rainfall on range condition and grasshopper population, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Arizona. J. Econ. Entomol. 54: 382-386.

Newton, R. C., C. O. Esselbaugh, G. T. York and H. W. Prescott. 1954. Seasonal development of range grasshoppers as related to control. USDA Agr. Res. Serv. Bur. Entomol. Plant Quarant. E-873.

Newton, R. C. and A. B. Gurney. 1956, 1957. Distribution maps of range grasshoppers in the United States. Coop. Econ. Insect Rep. 6 and 7.

Onsager, J. A., J. E. Henry, R. N. Foster and R. T. Staten. 1980. Acceptance of wheat bran bait by species of rangeland grasshoppers. J. Econ. Entomol. 73: 548-551.

Onsager, J. A. and G. B. Mulkern. 1963. Identification of eggs and egg pods of North Dakota grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). North Dakota Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 446.

Otte, D. 1970. A comparative study of communicative behavior in grasshoppers. Univ. Michigan Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. No. 141.

Otte, D. 1981. The North American Grasshoppers. Vol. 1, Acrididae: Gomphocerinae and Acridinae. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Otte, D. 1984. The North American Grasshoppers. Vol. 2, Acrididae: Oedipodinae. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.

Parker, J. R. 1930. Some effects of temperature and moisture upon Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus Saussure and Camnula pellucida Scudder (Orthoptera). Montana Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 223.

Parker, J. R., R. C. Newton, and R. L. Shotwell. 1955. Observations on mass flights and other activities of the migratory grasshopper. USDA Tech. Bull. 1109.

Pfadt, R. E. 1986. Key to the Wyoming grasshoppers; Acrididae and Tetrigidae. Univ. Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta. Mimeo. Circ. 210.

Pfadt, R. E. and D. M. Hardy. 1987. Conducting a rangeland grasshopper control program: a chronology. Univ. Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta. B-882.

Pfadt, R. E. and R. J. Lavigne. 1982. Food habits of grasshoppers inhabiting the Pawnee site. Univ. Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta. SM 42.

Pickford, R. 1953. A two-year life-cycle in grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) overwintering as eggs and nymphs. Can. Entomol. 85: 9-14.

Pickford, R. and M. K. Mukerji. 1974. Assessment of loss in yield of wheat caused by the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Can. Entomol. 106: 1219-1226.

Raubenheimer, D. and E. A. Bernays. 1993. Patterns of feeding in the polyphagous grasshopper Taeniopoda eques: a field study. Anim. Behav. 45: 153-167.

Rees, N. E. 1973. Arthropod and nematode parasites, parasitoids, and predators of Acrididae in America north of Mexico. USDA, ARS, Tech. Bull. 1460.

Rehn, J. A. G. and M. Hebard. 1906. A contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Montana, Yellowstone Park, Utah and Colorado. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. pp. 358-418.

Rentz, D. C. and J. D. Birchim. 1968. Revisionary studies in the nearctic Decticinae. Memoirs Pacific Coast Entomol. Soc. Vol 3.

Rentz, D. C. F. 1978. The grasshoppers of the marginatus group of the genus Melanoplus (Orthoptera: Acrididae; Melanoplinae). Acrida 7: 165-196.

Rentz, D. C. F. and D. B. Weissman. 1981. Faunal affinities, systematics, and bionomics of the Orthoptera of the California channel islands. Univ. California Publ. Entomol. 94: 1-240.

Richman, D. B., D. C. Lightfoot, C. A. Sutherland, D. J. Ferguson, and L. Black. 1993. A manual of the grasshoppers of New Mexico (Orthoptera: Acrididae and Romaleidae). New Mexico State University, Handbook No. 7.

Riegert, P. W. 1961. Embryological development of a nondiapause form of Melanoplus bilituratus Walker (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Canadian J. Zool. 39: 491-494.

Salt, R. W. 1949. A key to the embryological development of Melanoplus bivittatus (Say), M. mexicanus (Sauss.), and M. packardii Scudder. Canadian J. Research, D, 27: 233-235.

Scoggan, A. C. and M. A. Brusven. 1972. Differentiation and ecology of common immature Gomphocerinae and Oedipodinae (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of Idaho and adjacent areas. Melanderia 8: 1-76.

Shotwell, R. L. 1930. A study of the lesser migratory grasshopper. USDA Tech. Bull. 190.

Shotwell, R. L. 1941. Life histories and habits of some grasshoppers of economic importance on the Great Plains. USDA Tech Bull. 774.

Smith, R. C. 1954. An analysis of 100 years of grasshopper populations in Kansas (1854 to 1954). Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 57: 397-433.

Steyskal, G. C., W. L. Murphy and E. M. Hoover, eds. 1986. Insects and mites: Techniques for collection and preservation. USDA Misc. Publ. 1443.

Strohecker, H. F., W. W. Middlekauff and D. C. Rentz. 1968. The grasshoppers of California (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Bull. California Insect Surv. 10.

Tinkham, E. R. 1938. Western Orthoptera attracted to lights. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 46: 339-353.

Tinkham, E. R. 1948. Faunistic and ecological studies on the Orthoptera of the Big Bend region of Trans-Pecos Texas, with especial reference to the Orthopteran zones and faunae of midwestern North America. Am. Midl. Nat. 40: 521-663.

Tuck, J. B. and R. C. Smith. 1939. Identification of the eggs of midwestern grasshoppers by the chorionic sculpturing. Kansas State Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 48.

Uvarov, B. P. 1966. Grasshoppers and Locusts. A handbook of general Acridology. Vol. 1. Cambridge Univ. Press, London.

Uvarov, B. P. 1977. Grasshoppers and Locusts. A handbook of general Acridology. Vol. 2. Centre for Overseas Pest Research, London.

Van Horn, S. N. 1966. Studies on the embryogenesis of Aulocara elliotti (Thomas) (Orthoptera, Acrididae) I. External morphogenesis. J. Morphology 120: 83-114.

Vickery, V. R. and D. K. McE. Kevan. 1983. A monograph of the Orthopteroid insects of Canada and adjacent regions. Lyman Entomol. Mus. Res. Lab. Mem. 13, Vol. 1 and 2.

Wakeland, C. 1958. The high plains grasshopper. USDA Tech. Bull. 1167.

Wakeland, C. 1959. Mormon crickets in North America. USDA Tech. Bull. 1202.

Wallace, H. S. 1955. Revision of the genus Aeoloplides (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 48: 453-480.

Weissman, D. B. and D. C. F. Rentz. 1978. The Orthoptera of Stanford University’s Jasper Ridge and neighboring Palo Alto, California. Wasmann J. Biol. 35: 87-114.

Whitman, D. W. 1987. Thermoregulation and daily activity patterns in a black desert grasshopper, Taeniopoda eques. Anim. Behav. 35: 1814-1826.

Wilson, C. C. and H. H. Keifer. 1941. A study of the marginate grasshopper, with notes on associated congeneric species. Bull. Dept. Agr. California 30(3): 291-311.

Next Page

Back to Top of Page

Logos  

USDA ARS Home User Handbook ID Tools New Research Support Sofware NPARL Research Extras Index What's New Order CD Site Map